The Republic of Albania, located on the shores of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea, with a latitude of 39o38′- 42o38’ and a length of 19o16′-21o04 ′, has a mountainous relief in 2/3 of the territory. The coastline of our country lays 345 km in a north-south, where one part is coastal lowland and the other part very close to the southern mountainous coast. The main wind directions in Albania are northwest-southeast and southwest-northeast, with a main direction towards the land. Inland, the direction and intensity of the wind from place to place varies seasonally. The measurements of the Institute of Hydrometeorology, for many years, have aimed to make weather meteorological data available to the Air and Sea Service Forces. Climatic analysis conducted in the Albanian territory to assess the natural wind potential, has taken into account the observations at 22 meteorological stations throughout the country.
The assessments analyzed the following parameters:
We should emphasize that the need to study the potential of wind use for Albania today is primary and necessary, for the following reasons:
Meteorological stations are built as spot areas for climatological purposes and not for the use of wind energy purposes. Consequently, the natural wind potential is expected to be greater. In expedition studies carried out, there have been observed higher wind speeds in mountain passes and valleys. The measured speed at the top of the hills, preferred places for the installation of wind turbines, has been measured about 1.5 times higher than in the fields or plane places where measuring stations are often located. It should be mentioned here that potential places for the use of wind energy are also hilly areas or special hills along the coast, places where wind is a constant phenomenon due to the contrast of sea-land temperatures.
All wind speed measurements in Albania are made at wind speeds up to 10 m above the ground surface. This means that the researchers of wind potential should take into account the fact that the wind speed increases with the altitude and consequently its power. The measurements of the Hydro-meteorological Institute of wind speed throughout the territory of Albania and the techniques used have not had as their main purpose its assessment from the energy point of view, but mainly weather forecasting in certain areas. However, designated high and moderate wind zones should be evaluated for energy generation purposes.